The following information will be included in the educational information provided to the community and as part of the annual student disclosure. This information will be posted on and linked to from a website and may be referred to in the range of other education mechanisms the campus employs.

A. Appropriate vs. Inappropriate Use of Copyrighted Material

A systemwide website provides information about copyright, including appropriate vs. inappropriate uses of copyrighted material. The information includes FAQs about copyright ownership and using copyrighted material, and links to pertinent University of California policies.

Copyright law allows for the “fair use” of copyrighted materials for purposes of teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a complex subject; some resources for more information follow:

B. Institutional Policies and Sanctions Related to Copyright Infringement

Information about University policies addressing copyright infringement is available on the web. The UC Electronic Communications Policy (ECP) states that “The contents of all electronic communications shall conform to laws and University policies regarding the protection of intellectual property, including laws and policies regarding copyright, patents, and trademarks” (section III.D.10. Intellectual Property).

The ECP also provides for sanctions against network users who violate copyright law and UC policy: “In compliance with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, the university reserves the right to suspend or terminate access to university electronic communications systems and services by any user who repeatedly violates copyright law” (ECP Section III Allowable Use, E).

C. Student Disciplinary Procedures

UCSB handles claims of online infringement under the DMCA through established processes. Once notified of possible copyright infringement, most students do not repeat the activity. When it is necessary to initiate a judicial review, UCSB utilizes established local procedures for adjudicating violations of University policy, including copyright violations. Appropriate sanctions are imposed according to University guidelines. The type of sanction imposed depends on the facts of the case and may range from probation to loss of privileges, to suspension, and, potentially, to dismissal from the University. UCSB may use sanctions as a means to further educate students about responsibilities.

It is important to note that the UC Electronic Communications Policy provides for sanctions. It states that “In compliance with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, the university reserves the right to suspend or terminate access to university electronic communications systems and services by any user who repeatedly violates copyright law.” (ECP Section III Allowable Use, E)

Student infringers also are subject to sanctions under the Universitywide Policy on Student Conduct and Discipline, which states that illegal file-sharing of copyrighted materials is a violation that may be grounds for discipline.

“Chancellors may impose discipline for the commission or attempted commission…of the following types of violations….” (section 102)

“Abuses include (but are not limited to) unauthorized entry, use, transfer, or tampering with the communications of others; interference with the work of others and with the operations of computer and electronic communications facilities, systems, and services; or copyright infringement (for example, the illegal file-sharing of copyrighted materials). (section 102.05)

D. Civil/Criminal Liabilities

Any person engaged in the unauthorized distribution of copyrighted material, including unauthorized peer-to-peer file sharing, may subject civil and/or criminal liability for copyright infringement. Those who infringe copyright can be subject to civil damages of between $750 and $150,000 per infringement and even criminal jail time. The use of University resources must not only obey the law but must also comply with all University policies.

E. Penalties for Violation of Federal Copyright Law

Copyright infringement is the act of exercising, without permission or legal authority, one or more of the exclusive rights granted to the copyright owner under section 106 of the Copyright Act (Title 17 of the United States Code). These rights include the right to reproduce or distribute a copyrighted work. In the file-sharing context, downloading or uploading substantial parts of a copyrighted work without authority constitutes an infringement.

Penalties for copyright infringement include civil and criminal penalties. In general, anyone found liable for civil copyright infringement may be ordered to pay either actual damages or "statutory" damages affixed at not less than $750 and not more than $30,000 per work infringed. For "willful" infringement, a court may award up to $150,000 per work infringed. A court can, in its discretion, also assess costs and attorneys' fees. For details, see Title 17, United States Code, Sections 504, 505.

Willful copyright infringement can also result in criminal penalties, including imprisonment of up to five years and fines of up to $250,000 per offense.

For more information, please see the web site of the U.S. Copyright Office at, especially its FAQs at